Dry kiln operator's manual
The modern dry kiln is a unique product of research, development, and experience. It is the only practical means now in wide use for rapid, high- volume drying of lumber to conditions necessary for maximum serviceability in housing, furniture, millwork, and many other wood products. As part of our c ......

Modeling silviculture after natural disturbance to sustain biodiversity in the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) ecosystem : balancing complexity and implementation
Modeling silviculture after natural disturbance to maintain biodiversity is a popular concept, yet its application remains elusive. We discuss difficulties inherent to this idea, and suggest approaches to facilitate implementation, using longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) as an example. Natural disturb ......

The strength and stability of any structure depend heavily on the fastenings that hold its parts together. One prime advantage of wood as a structural material is the ease with which wood structural parts can be joined together with a wide variety of fastenings— nails, spikes, screws, bolts, lag scr ......

Lumber stress grades and design properties
Lumber sawn from a log, regardless of species and size, is quite variable in mechanical properties. Pieces may differ in strength by several hundred percent. For simplicity and economy in use, pieces of lumber of similar mechanical properties are placed in categories called stress grades, which are ......

Best of both worlds : clear exterior finishes : in search of finishes that protect wood without hiding its natural beauty
In recent years, a number of clear wood finishes have been developed that protect wood while accentuating its natural beauty. The focus of this publication is on those finishes having little visible pigment. In some cases, the pigments are included but are finely ground to create a coating that is t ......

Aldehyde emissions from particleboard and medium density fiberboard products
Indoor air quality problems resulting from the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have become an issue of increasing concern. Emissions from building and furnishing materials, which are frequently constructed from particleboard and medium density fiberboard (MDF), are a potentially import ......

Decay and termite resistance of medium density fiberboard (MDF) made from different wood species
Medium density fiberboard (MDF) production worldwide is increasing due to the development of new manufacturing technologies. As a result, MDF products are increasingly utilized in traditional wood applications that require fungal and insect resistance. This study evaluated the ability of white and b ......

Adhesive interactions with wood
While the chemistry for the polymerization of wood adhesives has been studied systematically and extensively, the critical aspects of the interaction of adhesives with wood are less clearly understood. General theories of bond formation need to be modified to take into account the porosity of wood a ......

The status of timber resources in the North Central United States
Between 1953 and 1997 the volume of standing timber in the region (growing stock) more than doubled from 37 to 83 billion cubic feet. Forests in the North Central Region grow 2.3 billion cubic feet of new wood on growing-stock trees each year. Annual removals are about half that amount. The pattern ......

Effect of water repellent preservatives and other wood treatments on restoration and durability of millwork
This report describes the long-term performance of painted window units that were placed outdoors near Madison, Wisconsin, in 1956. Covered in this report are the effects of the initial water repellent preservative (WRP) treatment during the first 6 years of exposure, a comparison of the water repel ......

Mechanical grading of oak timbers
For many wood species, the grading of timbers [ 76 mm ( 4-in.) thick] has not changed in decades. Most timbers are still visually graded by methods that originated in the 1930s. Mechanical grading procedures used to accurately grade 38-mm (2-in. nominal) dimension lumber have not been adapted for us ......

Drying and control of moisture content and dimensional changes
In the living tree, wood contains large quantities of water. As green wood dries, most of the water is removed. The moisture remaining in the wood tends to come to equilibrium with the relative humidity of the surrounding air. Correct drying, handling, and storage of wood will minimize moisture cont ......

Comparing Soil Carbon of Short Rotation Poplar Plantations with Agricultural Crops and Woodlots in North Central United States
We collected soil samples from 27 study sites across North Central United States to compare the soil carbon of short rotation poplar plantations to adjacent agricultural crops and woodlots. Soil organic carbon (SOC) ranged from 20 to more than 160 Mg/ha across the sampled sites. Lowest SOC levels we ......

Long-term soil accumulation of chromium, copper, and arsenic adjacent to preservative-treated wood.
Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood has been used extensively in outdoor applications. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and CCA producers recently reached an agreement to limit future use of CCA for some types of applications. One area of concern is the long-term accumulation of le ......

Characterization of coarse woody debris across a 100 year chronosequence of upland oak-hickory forest
Coarse woody debris is an important component influencing forest nutrient cycling and contributes to long-term soil productivity. The common practice of classifying coarse woody debris into different decomposition classes has seldom,been related to the chemistry/biochemistry of the litter, which is ......

Rate of CCA leaching from commercially treated decking.
Conflicting reports on levels of arsenic in soil beneath decks treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) have raised concerns about arsenic exposure from this type of treated wood. This paper reports on an evaluation of the rate of release of copper, chromium, and arsenic from commercially treate ......

Fine root dynamics across a chronosequence of upland temperate deciduous forests
Following a major disturbance event in forests that removes most of the standing vegetation, patterns of fine root growth,,mortality, and decomposition may be altered from the pre-disturbance conditions. The objective of this study was to describe,the changes in the seasonal and spatial dynamics of ......

Energy from wood
In most developing countries wood and charcoal are the predominant fuels for preparation of food to maintain the quality of life that encompasses the majority of citizens. In many developing countries wood fuels are also important for small and medium size industries. Moreover, energy from wood cont ......

Progress in developing disease control strategies for hybrid poplars
Hybrid poplars are being grown throughout many regions of the world for purposes including the production of fiber and energy, ornamental landscape plantings,,and soil stabilization. Disease has often been responsible for planting failures resulting in poplars being labeled the universal host to man ......

The Central Hardwood Forest: Its Boundaries and Physiographic Provinces
The Central Hardwood Forest (CHF) refers to the area where deciduous,hardwood species overwhelmingly, but not exclusively, dominate the stands and cover,types that occur as repeating units across the landscape. Transition zones where Central,Hardwood species mix with species from adjacent regions id ......

Sawtooth forces in cutting tropical hardwoods native to South America
As a result of design, operation, and maintenance, sawblades used in tropical sawmills can cause many problems. Improvements in these areas are needed to reduce the waste associated with sawing of tropical species that are regarded as difficult to cut. In this study, cutting experiments that simulat ......

Field performance testing of improved engineered wood fiber surfaces for accessible playground areas
Some engineered wood fiber (EWF) surfaces on playgrounds are soft and uneven, which creates difficulties for those who use mobility aids, such as wheelchairs and walkers. The outdoor field testing reported in this study is part of an effort to stabilize EWF to improve accessibility. The concept is t ......

Considerations in recycling of wood-plastic composites
Wood-plastic composite decking has made major advances in material performance, processing and user acceptance. The growth of wood-plastic composite decking in North America has grown from less than 1 % in mid- 0's to over 10% today with growth projected by several studies to reach +20% before the e ......

Heat sterilization time of ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir boards and square timbers
To prevent the unintentional transfer of insects and pathogens during world trade, wood products are often heat sterilized. The general requirement is that the center of the wood configuration be held at 133°F (56°C) for 30 min. However, many factors can affect the time required to reach this temper ......

Physical properties and moisture relations of wood
The versatility of wood is demonstrated by a wide variety of products. This variety is a result of a spectrum of desirable physical characteristics or properties among the many species of wood. In many cases, more than one property of wood is important to the end product. For example, to select a wo ......

Adhesive bonding of wood materials
Adhesive bonding of wood components has played an essential role in the development and growth of the forest products industry and has been a key factor in the efficient utilization of our timber resource. The largest use of adhesives is in the construction industry. By far, the largest amounts of a ......

Effect of simulated rainfall and weathering on release of preservative elements from CCA treated wood
The release of arsenic from wood pressure-treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) can be decreased by application of wood finishes, but little is known about the types of finishes that are best suited for this purpose. This study evaluated the effects of finish water repellent content and ultra ......

Estimating air drying times of small-diameter ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir logs.
Because dense stands of softwood trees are causing forest health problems in the western United States, new ways to use this material need to be found. One option is to use this material as logs rather than sawing it into lumber. For many applications, logs require some degree of drying. Even though ......

Small-diameter log evaluation for value-added structural applications
Three species of small-diameter logs from the Klamath/Siskiyou Mountains and the Cascade Range in southwest Oregon were tested for their potential for value-added structural applications. The logs were tested in bending and compression parallel to the grain. Strength and stiffness values were correl ......

Diameter Growth Models Using Minnesota Forest Inventory and Analysis Data
The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service North Central Research Station (NCRS) has begun replacing the 12-to 13-yr periodic inventory cycles for the states in the North Central region with annual inventories featuring measurement of approximately 20% of all plots in ......

Research challenges for structural use of small-diameter round timbers
Forest managers have identified forest stands overstocked with small-diameter trees as a critical forest health issue. Overstocked stands are subject to attack by insects and disease and, as a result of the heavy fuel load, risk total destruction by fire. Prescribed burning is an economic tool for s ......

Use and production of solid sawn timbers in the United States
Although timber production has grown steadily over the last decade, information about the use of timbers and the corresponding resource remains in short supply. This study adds to the available literature on solid sawn timbers by compiling data on timber production and uses. The major categories of ......

Harvesting Impacts on Soil Properties and Tree Regeneration in Pure and Mixed Aspen Stands
Impacts of clearcutting and selective harvesting on pure aspen/mixed aspen hardwood stands were examined in northern Minnesota. We studied these impacts on 18 stands, which were harvested 4 to 11 years ago and received no further treatment. In each stand, residual composition, soil compaction, and t ......

The Development of improved willow clones for eastern North America
Efforts aimed at genetic improvement of Salix are increasing in North America.Most of these are directed towards developing improved clones for biomass production, phytoremediation, nutrient filters, and stream bank stabilization in the Northeast and North-central United States. Native species are o ......

Current trends in the management of aspen and mixed aspen forests for sustainable production
Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is a remarkable species that performs several significant ecological roles throughout its range while at the same time is facing ever-increasing harvesting pressure. Although its full product potential remains untapped, aspen utilization has increased notic ......

The fire and oak hypothesis: incorporating the influence of deer browsing and canopy gaps
A century of fire suppression has altered tree species composition and is a commonly cited cause for the region-wide decline in oak abundance (the fire and oak hypothesis). Other explanations include alterations in canopy gap regimes and deer browsing that operate in conjunction with fire suppressio ......

Correlation of adhesive strength with service life of paint applied to weathered wood
Smooth-planed western redcedar bevel siding was exposed outdoors (preweathered) for 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 weeks. The weathered boards were separated into two end-matched groups. One group was painted with only primer paint and tested for paint adhesion following preweathering. The second group was pain ......

Attitudes toward ecosystem management in the United States, 1992-1998
Ecosystem management has been formally adopted by a large number of state and federal agencies and by forest products firms and associations. But little research has examined people`s attitudes toward this new approach to natural resources management. This study used computer methods to measure favo ......

Germination of CO2-enriched Pinus taeda L. seeds and subsequent seedling growth responses to CO2 enrichment
Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, [CO2], has profound effects on growth and development of trees. Adoubling of [C02] generally stimulates photosynthesis (Murray 1995; Saxe, Ellsworth and Heath 1998) and can lead to a substantial increase in tree growth (Poorter 1993). For example, ......

Finishing of wood
The primary function of any wood finish (paint, varnish, and stain, for example) is to protect the wood surface, help maintain a certain appearance, and provide a cleanable surface. Although wood can be used both outdoors and indoors without finishing, unfinished wood surfaces exposed to the weather ......

Profitability of Precommericially Thinning Oak Stump Sprouts
Thinning oak stump sprouts to a single stem at an early age will increase diameter growth of the released stem. However, percommercial thinning represents a substantial investment which must be carried for many years before any returns are realized. We estimated the incremental gains in yield and th ......

Quality drying in a hardwood lumber predryer : guidebook--checklist
The IMPROVE Lumber Drying Program is intended to increase awareness of the lumber drying system as a critical component in the manufacture of quality lumber. One objective of the program is to provide easy-to-use tools that a kiln/predryer operator can use to maintain an efficient drying operation a ......

Landscape ecology and forest management
Almost all forest management activities affect landscape pattern to some extent. Among the most obvious impacts are those associated with forest harvesting and road building. These activities profoundly affect the size, shape, and configuration of patches in the landscape matrix. Even-age management ......

Sawfly Life History Adaptations to Woody Plants
Our aim is to examine various life history attributes of these sawflies and identify general patterns. Whenever possible, we compare sawflies to forest Lepidoptera to underscore differences and similarities between the two groups. First, we determine the degree to which herbs, shrubs, and trees are ......

Quality drying of hardwood lumber : guidebook -- checklist
The IMPROVE Lumber Drying Program is intended to increase awareness of the lumber drying system as a critical component in the manufacture of quality lumber. One objective of the program is to provide easy-to-use tools that a kiln operator can use to maintain an efficient kiln operation and therefor ......

Dynamics of forest herbivory: quest for pattern and principle.
Herbivory on woody plants is highly variable in both space and time. This proceedings addresses one of its root causes, the highly intricate and dynamic relationships that exist between most herbivores and their host plants. It emphasizes that the consequences of herbivory both to the consumer and t ......

Quality drying of softwood lumber : guidebook - checklist
The IMPROVE Lumber Drying Program is intended to increase awareness of the lumber drying system as a critical component in the manufacture of quality lumber. One objective of the program is to provide easy-to-use tools that a kiln operator can use to maintain an efficient kiln operation and therefor ......

A microwave method for measuring moisture content, density, and grain angle of wood
The attenuation, phase shift and depolarization of a polarized 4.81-gigahertz wave as it is transmitted through a wood specimen can provide estimates of the moisture content (MC), density, and grain angle of the specimen. Calibrations are empirical, and computations are complicated, with considerabl ......

Logging impact in uneven-aged stands of the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project
Today, there is keen interest in using alternative silvicultural systems like individual-tree selection, group openings and shelterwood because the general public feels these systems are more acceptable than clearcutting. Consequently, due to repeated entries into forest stands and the fact,that res ......

Method for estimating air-drying times of lumber
Published information on estimated air-drying times of lumber is of limited usefulness because it is restricted to a specific location or to the time of year the lumber is stacked for drying. At best, these estimates give a wide range of possible times over a broad range of possible locations and st ......

Performance of wood in a do-it-yourself solar collector
Six variations of a do-it-yourself solar collector design were constructed and exposed under stagnation conditions for 1 year; collectors were basically closed boxes without air circulation. Temperature in each collector was recorded throughout the test period and the effect of these temperatures on ......

Improvements In solar dry kiln design
Interest in solar drying of lumber has increased in recent years because previous results had indicated that: Drying times are shorter and final moisture contents are lower in solar drying than in air drying; much less lumber degrade occurs in solar drying when compared to air drying; and the cost o ......

A National Assessment of the Urban Forest: An Overview
Urban forest management promises to play a critical role in the management of .... our nation`s forest resources in the 21st century. Urban forests are significant and diverse ecosystems with intricate connections among their physical, biological, and social components; as well as with other element ......

Forestry in urban and urbanizing areas of the United States; connecting people with forest in the 21st century
Resource managers worldwide face challenges,in responding to expanding urbanization and,its effects on forest resources. These,challenges can be met head on if managers,work toward: (1) comprehensive management,of forest resources in urban and urbanizing,areas, and (2)connection of urban people with ......

Challenges in converting among log scaling methods.
The traditional method of measuring log volume in North America is the board foot log scale, which uses simple assumptions about how much of a log's volume is recoverable. This underestimates the true recovery potential and leads to difficulties in comparing volumes measured with the traditional boa ......

Overview of approaches to sustain forest productivity during forest road development and timber harvesting activities
Various approaches are available to minimize impacts on forest productivity during forest road building and timber harvesting activities. These approaches include a variety of practices and technologies. They include practices such as reducing road and trail development, using designated trails, and ......

Recovering wood for reuse and recycling : a United States perspective
The United States is a country with a vast forest resource, comprising about one-third of its total land area (or about 3 million square kilometers). As a result, wood is an important renewable resource and is widely used in many applications! including building construction, furniture, fuelwood, te ......

Shifts and future trends in the forest resources of the Central Hardwood region
Forests in the Central Hardwood region are undergoing change in terms of area, volume, species composition, and forest structure. These forests are dominated by deciduous species; are increasing their average stand size, volume, and age; and, are experiencing woody plant species replacement as shade ......

Machine grading of lumber : practical concerns for lumber producers
Machine lumber grading has been applied in commercial operations in North America since 1963, and research has shown that machine grading can improve the efficient use of wood. However, industry has been reluctant to apply research findings without clear evidence that the change from visual to machi ......

Roles for agroforestry in hardwood regeneration and natural-stand management
A convincing case can be made that current land-use patterns in the Central Hardwood region reflect a significant underutilization of our land-based resources. A land-use strategy is required that would allow landowners who are interested in converting marginal crop lands to forests, or unproductive ......

Long-term change and spatial pattern in a late-successional hemlock-northern hardwood forest
When unlogged, mesic forest of the Great lakes region of North America are `slow systems` dominant trees can live for over 300 years and canopy-residence times range from 100 to over 200 years (frelich and Lorimer 1991: Frelich and Graumlich 1994: parshall 1995: Dahir and Lorimer 1996: Woods 2000). ......

Variability in evaluating environmental impacts of treated wood.
Preservative-treated wood contains components that may be toxic to non-target organisms if released into the environment in sufficient quantities. Numerous studies have been conducted to determine the rate of preservative release from treated wood and/or the extent of their subsequent accumulation i ......

Diagnostic guide for evaluating surface distortions in veneered furniture and cabinetry
Manufacturers and installers of wood-veneered furniture and cabinetry sometimes find that their products eventually develop surface distortions, characterized by either buckling or cracking of the surface finish. The veneer itself sometimes buckles or cracks. Most surface distortions are caused by m ......

Drying hardwood lumber
Drying Hardwood Lumber focuses on common methods for drying lumber of different thickness, with minimal drying defects, for high quality applications. This manual also includes predrying treatments that, when part of an overall quality-oriented drying system, reduce defects and improve drying qualit ......

Method for adjusting warp measurements to a different board dimension
Warp in lumber is a common problem that occurs while lumber is being dried. In research or other testing programs, it is sometimes necessary to compare warp of different species or warp caused by different process variables. If lumber dimensions are not the same, then direct comparisons are not poss ......

Effect of wet bulb depression on heat sterilization time of slash pine lumber
For international trade, heat sterilization of wood products is often required to prevent the spread of insects and pathogens. Application of heat sterilization requires estimates of the time necessary to heat the center of the wood configuration to the temperature required to kill the insect or oth ......

Height-Diameter Equations for Thirteen Midwestern Bottomland Hardwood Species
Height-diameter equations are often used to predict the mean total tree height for trees when only diameter at breast height (dbh) is measured. Measuring dbh is much easier and is subject to less measurement error than total tree height. However, predicted heights only reflect the average height for ......

Acorn production in red oak
Manipulation of stand stocking through thinning can increase the amount of oak in the upper crown classes and enhance individual tree characteristics that promote good acorn production. Identification of good acorn producers before thinning or shelterwood harvests can be used to retain them in a sta ......

Restoration of severely weathered wood
Severely weathered window units were used to test various restoration methods and pretreatments. Sanded and unsanded units were pretreated with a consolidant or water repellent preservative, finished with an oil- or latex-based paint system, and exposed outdoors near Madison, WI, for five years. Pre ......

Effect of drilled holes on the bending strength of large dimension Douglas-fir lumber
In this study, experimental bending tests were performed on nominal 4-by 8-inch (actual 89-mm by 191-mm)lumber members to determine how a notch and holes drilled in the wide face affect edge wise bending strength. Holes were drilled at the midspan in three locations relative to the edge. The results ......

Small-diameter success stories
Public and private forests are in critical need of restoration by thinning small-diameter timber. If economical and value-added uses for this thinned material can be found, forest restoration costs could be offset and catastrophic wildfires would be minimized. At the same time, forestry- dependent r ......

Assessment of decay in standing timber using stress wave timing nondestructive evaluation tools : a guide for use and interpretation
This guide was prepared to assist field foresters in the use of stress wave timing instruments to locate and define areas of decay in standing timber. The first three sections provide background information, the principles of stress wave nondestructive testing, and measurement techniques for stress ......

An ecological aesthetic for forest landscape management
Although aesthetics and ecological sustainability are two highly regared values of forest landscapes, practices developed to manage forests for these values can sometimes conflict with one another. In this paper I argue that such conflicts are rooted in our conception of forest aesthetics as scenery ......

Should whole-tree chips for fuel be dried before storage?
Whole-tree chips deteriorate more rapidly than do clean, debarked chips and present a greater hazard for spontaneous ignition when stored in outdoor piles. To prevent ignition, the chips can be stored for only short periods of time and the frequent rotation of the storage piles results in high handl ......

Home wreckers in search of moisture
Research at the Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) related to durability and disaster mitigation includes damage by decay fungi and termites and contamination by mold fungi. All these household pests are attracted to excess moisture, which can result from inadequate surface drying of condensation, lea ......

Round timbers and ties
Round timbers and ties represent some of the most efficient uses of our forest resources. They require a minimum of processing between harvesting the tree and marketing the structural commodity. Poles and piles are debarked or peeled, seasoned, and often treated with preservative prior to use as str ......

Lumber drying and heat sterilization research at the U.S. Forest Products Laboratory
The Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) has a long history of research and technology transfer in lumber drying. Many of the dry kiln schedules used in industry today were developed by the staff of the Laboratory, and for many years the Laboratory conducted a kiln drying short course for training dry k ......

Exploring the uses for small-diameter trees
Small-diameter and underutilized (SDU) material refers to the timber that is left in the forest because it is not economical to remove, or local capacity to process it does not exist. SDU material also includes the dense, understory present through-out the forest as a result of 50 years of successfu ......

Kiln drying maple for structural uses
Structural lumber products are traditionally manufactured from softwoods. However, with shrinking supplies of softwood lumber and abundant supplies of hardwood lumber, there is increasing interest in the use of hardwoods for structural applications. One factor that will be important in both the tech ......

Spatial Variation In Growing Season Heat Sums Within Northern Hardwood Forest Canopy Gaps
When a gap forms in a forest canopy, the first and most immediate effect on the exposed area is an increase in radiative exchange near the ground. More sunlight reaches the ground during the daytime, and at nighttime the ground is more exposed to longwave radiation influences from the sky. These cha ......

Planning and implementing forest operations to achieve sustainable forests: Proceedings of papers presented at the joint meeting of the Council on Forest Engineering and International Union of Forest Research Organizations.
Contains a variety of papers presented at the joint meeting of the Council on Forest Engineering and International Union of Forest Research Organizations Subject Group S3.04 and that support the meeting theme `Planning and Implementing Forest Operations to Achieve Sustainable Forests.` 1996

Payback as an investment criterion for sawmill improvement projects
Methods other than presented here should be used to assess projects for likely return on investment; but, payback is simple to calculate and can be used for calculations that will indicate the relative attractiveness of alternative improvement projects. This paper illustrates how payback ratios are ......

Equilibrium moisture content of wood in outdoor locations in the United States and worldwide
With relative humidity and temperature data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the average equilibrium moisture content for each month of the year was calculated for 262 locations in the United States and 122 locations outside the United States. As an aid for storage of kiln-d ......

Microclimatic variation between managed and unmanaged northern hardwood forests in Upper Michigan, USA.
Temperature, light, wind, and precipitation were measured in the understory of managed and unmanaged northern hardwood forests in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan from 1995 through 2001. These measurements provide a baseline of information to compare the microclimate under managed and unmanaged condi ......

Bark And Its Possible Uses
What to do with bark is a major question facing the wood conversion industries. Optimum utilization of bark residues demands appreciation of the complexity of bark and the extreme variation in chemical and physical properties between barks of different wood species. This report discusses bark struct ......

Dimension yields from short logs of low-quality hardwood trees.
Charts are presented for determining yields of 4/4 dimension cuttings from short hardwood logs of aspen, soft maple, black cherry, yellow-poplar, and black walnut for several cutting grades and bolt sizes. Cost comparisons of short log and standard grade mixes show sizes. Cost comparisons of short l ......

BF into cubic meters
Noted forest products industry researcher and writer says the conversion factor traditionally used to convert logs measured in board feet to cubic meters has risen. In the U.S., most timber is measured in terms of board feet. The log scales currently in use to estimate lumber recovery from roundwood ......

Air drying of lumber.
This report describes how lumber can be air-dried most effectively under outdoor conditions and illustrates the principles and procedures of air-drying lumber that were developed through field investigations and observations of industrial practices. Particular emphasis is placed on the yarding of lu ......

Wood properties affecting finish service life
Wood is a biological material that has widely different properties depending on species, geographic area where the tree grew, the growth conditions, size of the tree at harvest, sawing, and other manufacturing processes. Some of the more important wood properties as they relate to wood finishing are ......

Accelerating oak air drying by presurfacing
A comparison was made between the air-drying rates of rough and presurfaced northern red oak and white oak. In both species, the presurfaced material was about 1/8 inch thinner than the rough material and dried faster than the rough material. The reduction in drying time depends on the method of ana ......

Long-term response of precommercially thinned aspen clones to Hypoxylon canker.
Reports of precommercially thinned quaking aspen to Hypoxylon canker across 47 years in northern Minnesota. Compares canker prevalence, tree mortality, tree density, height, diameter, and volume among two thinned treatments (aspen thinned, other hardwoods removed; aspen not thinned, other hardwoods ......

Quantitative color measurement for black walnut wood.
Black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) veneer specimens with wide variations in color were evaluated by a quantitative method of color measurement. The internationally adopted CIE system of colorimetry was used to analyze the data. These data were converted to also show them in the Munsell system. Color di ......

Selecting superior yellow birch trees; a preliminary guide.
Describes procedures to follow and characteristics to consider in selecting superior yellow birch trees. The first selection should be on the basis of tree quality. Characteristics to consider are as follows: for the stem--straightness, roundness, taper grain, self-pruning, and absence of defects; f ......

Fire resistance of exposed wood members
Fire resistance data on exposed wood beams and columns are plentiful, but few studies have been done on exposed wood members in tension and in decks. To provide data to verify the application of a new calculation procedure, a limited series of fire resistance tests were conducted on wood members loa ......

Feller/bunchers in plantations thinnings: factors affecting productivity.
Computer simulation was used to identify possible areas for improving the design and operation of feller/bunchers for thinning closely spaced plantations. Some of the variables considered were average stand diameter, tree spacing, thinning pattern, operational machine speeds, and shear head accumula ......

Knowledge for the future of black walnut; proceedings of the 5th black walnut symposium; 1996 July 28-31; Springfield, MO.
Proceedings of the Fifth Black Walnut Symposium held 28-31 July 1996 in Springfield, Missouri. Includes 46 manuscripts and abstracts dealing with establishment, management, and utilization of black walnut with emphasis on increased use for agroforestry and nut culture. 1997

Harvesting wood for energy
Illustrates the potential of harvesting wood for industrial energy, based on the results of five harvesting studies. Presents information on harvesting operations, equipment costs, and productivity. Discusses mechanized thinning of hardwoods, clearcutting of low-value stands and recovery of hardwood ......

Drying small quantities of green hardwoods at home.
Freshly sawn boards and stem cross-sectional disks, 4/4 and 8/4 thick, of three hardwood species were dried at six indoor and outdoor household locations in southern Illinois. It took silver maple and black cherry 90 days and white oak from 90 to 150 days to dry to less than 10% moisture content at ......

Pocket guide to Christmas tree diseases
Each year more than 30 million American families bring a live Christmas tree into their homes to become the warm and glowing center of their Christmas celebration. Years ago, most Christmas trees were cut wild. But, as demand increased and the supply of suitable wild trees decreased, growing Christm ......

Wood fuel potential from harvested areas in the eastern United States.
Estimates amount of wood fiber that could be available for fuel from forest residues on harvested areas in the eastern United States. Includes a key to resource data published by the USDA Forest Service and factors for estimating amounts of cull, bark, tops, and limbs from inventory and product outp ......

Changing National Forest Values: a content analysis.
Empirically analyzes the evolution of national forest values in recent years. A computerized content analysis procedure was developed and used to analyze the forest value systems of forestry professionals, mainstream environmentalists, and the public. National forest values were found to have shifte ......

How to identify common nitidulid beetles associated with oak wilt mats in Minnesota
Oak wilt, caused by the fungus Ceratocystis fagacearum (Bretz) Hunt, is an important disease of oaks throughout the Eastern United States. Thousands of native oaks, particularly those in the red oak group succumb to the disease each year across the midwest. 2001

Forest Products Laboratory natural finish
A simple and durable exterior natural finish developed at the Forest Products Laboratory is described. The finish is classified as a semi-transparent oil-base penetrating stain that effectively retains much of the natural grain and texture of wood when exposed to the weather. The directions for prep ......

Strip clearcutting to regenerate northern hardwoods.
Describes results of strip clearcutting trials in mature northern hardwood and hemlock-hardwood stands in the Lake States. Two strip width and orientations were tested, with and without herbicide treatment of the advance regeneration. Establishment, growth, and species composition of the regeneratio ......

The emerald ash borer: a new exotic pest in North America
Yet another new exotic forest pest has been discovered in North America, and this time the infestation is centered in Michigan and Ontario. In May and June 2002, adults of an unidentified buprestid beetle were collected from ash (Fraxinus) trees in the Detroit area of southeastern Michigan. 2002

Selection and application of exterior stains for wood
Exterior stains for wood protect the wood surface from sunlight and moisture. Because stains are formulated to penetrate the wood surface, they are not prone to crack or peel as can film-forming finishes, such as paints. This publication describes the properties of stains and wood, methods for apply ......

Estimating air drying times of lumber with multiple regression
In this study, the applicability of a multiple regression equation for estimating air drying times of red oak, sugar maple, and ponderosa pine lumber was evaluated. The equation allows prediction of estimated air drying times from historic weather records of temperature and relative humidity at any ......

Use Hardwoods for Building Components
Describes a system for prefabricating structural units from hardwoods for use in floors, roofs, and walls of a-frame or post-and-beam type construction. The interior face of the unit is decorative paneling; the exterior face is sheathing. Use of the system could reduce prefabricated house constructi ......

Design of thin shear blades for crosscut shearing of wood.
Discusses principles and presents formulations for evaluating the elastic stability of thin plates subjected to edge loadings. Three different prestress methods to increase late stability are presented. A procedure is given to evaluate the elastic stability of thin shear blades under expected sheari ......

Planting Depth of Hybrid Poplar Cuttings Influences Number of Shoots
Reports that planting unrooted hybrid poplar cuttings flush with the soil surface resulted in significantly fewer multiple-stem shoots compared to letting the cutting protrude 2.5 or 5.0 cm above the soil surface. There were no significant effects on shoot height growth or cutting mortality. 1991

Practical social assessments for national forest planning.
Residents of northern Wisconsin identified functional communities--geographic areas in which people share perceptions of and relationships to forests and natural resources. Functional communities are a useful concept for displaying social information for forest management and planning. 1998

Using price data to consider risk in the evaluation of forest management investments.
Shows how existing information on the historic prices of various timber species and products can be used to provide a measure of the market risk, return, and efficient portfolios of alternative forestry investments using examples from three Midwestern states. 1991

Yellowheaded spruce sawfly--its ecology and management.
Presents the biology and ecology of the yellowheaded spruce sawfly, and provides survey techniques and management strategies. In addition, it provides information on identification, classification, host range, and the historical records of outbreaks in the Lake States. 1995

A Budget Tree Improvement Program
In an Upper Peninsula Michigan test of simple design, white spruce of a Beachburg, Ontaria provenance grew 17.5 percent taller than white spruce from the Ottawa N.F. The paper describes how to convert such tests to low-cost, low-risk, highly flexible improvement programs. The approach is applicable ......

Careful logging, partial cutting and the protection of terrestrial and aquatic habitats
Stand management activites influence (1) tree growth and quality; (2) stand structure, stocking and composition; (3) wildlife and aquatic habitat quality; and (4) long-term site productivity. The cumulative impacts of stand-level treatments affect ecosystem structure and function at the landscape le ......

Stocking and structure for maximum growth in sugar maple selection stands.
The impacts of stocking, structure, and cutting cycle on basal area, cubic foot volume, board foot volume, and diameter growth are considered. Recommendations are provided for maximum growth in uneven-aged sugar maple stands. 1981

Black Walnut Growth Better on Deep, Well-Drained BottomLand Soils
Site requirements of 25-year-old plantation-grown black walnut on floodplains in southern Illinois were studied. Depth to a gravel layer was the only soil factor that significantly influenced height growth. There was a relationship between internal soil drainage and height growth. 1973

Felling and bunching small timber on steep slopes.
Discusses the results of a field test of the unique Menzi Muck machine for felling and bunching small trees on steep slopes. Includes the analysis of a detailed time study to determine the productivity, costs, and economic feasibility of this unusual machine. 1981

Forest Inventory Mapmaker Users Guide
The Forest Inventory Mapmaker Web application (http://www.ncrs.fs.fed.us/4801/fiadb/) provides users with the ability to easily generate tables and shaded maps. The goal of this manual is to present the basic concepts of the Web application to the user and to reinforce these concepts through the use ......

How to Determine Polyetheylene Glycol 1,000 Content in Treated Wood
An experimental technique using water extraction for evaluation of the content of ployethylene glycol of molecular weight 1,000 in wood where the ovendry weight of the untreated wood is not available was shown to be applicable for PEG-treated black oak and yellow-poplar. 1975

Tree-section harvesting of northern hardwood thinnings.
Describes the results of a field trial of tree-section harvesting, a shortwood version of whole-tree harvesting, in a northern hardwood thinning. This technique is technically feasible and especially useful where the appearance of the residual stand is a primary concern. 1993

Northern red oak regeneration after preherbicided clearcutting and shelterwood removal cutting.
Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) reproduction and competition are described 5 or 11 years after final removal cuttings in two shelterwoods and one preherbicided clearcut in southern Wisconsin. 1981

Uses for Sawdust, Shavings, And Waste Chips
Although many outlets are available for the utilization of wood fines, economical disposal of sawdust, shavings, and waste chips remains a problem of growing concern to the wood industry. This report summarizes current uses for wood residues and provides sources of further information on available o ......

Landscape-level habitat suitability models for twelve species in southern Missouri
Describes GIS-based habitat suitability index models for twelve terrestrial vertebrate species in southern Missouri. Demonstrates model application to a simulated forest landscape. 2003

Black Cherry Volume Tables for Furniture-Type, Flat, 4/4-Inch Dimension from Small Low-Quality Trees.
Volume tables are given for yield of clear-one-side, flat dimension from small, low-quality trees and boldts removed in a stand improvement cut of 54- to 76-year-old black cherry trees from northern Pennsylvania. 1974

Quaking aspen productivity recovers after repeated prescribed fire.
Describes how quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) stand recovered after logging, and logging and burning. Aspen suckering was profuse after each destructive episode but differences in stockability caused different yield trajectories. 1995

Gypsy moths get sick too!
In June, those large, black, hairy caterpillars really begin to get your attention as they devour your trees, pelt you car with unpleasent dropping, and lounge about on your porch. I am describing the gysy moth, of course, an annoying caterpillar because of its voracious appette, large size, and abu ......

A guide for determining when to fertilize hybrid poplar plantations.
Poplar leaf nitrogen should generally be maintained at more than 3%, but concentration varies with clonal parentage, tree age, year, and site. Recommendations are given for establishing a fertility monitoring program. 1994

Calculating competition in thinned northern hardwoods.
Describes four methods of calculating competition to individual trees and compares their effectiveness in explaining the 3-year growth response of northern hardwoods after various mechanized thinning practices. 1992

Maple Flooring - How Architects View it
In a study of architects`` opinions of maple flooring versus vinyl asbestos tile for school gymnasuims, resiliency and durability were found to be important factors favoring maple whereas vinyl asbestos tile was felt to be less costly and more dimesionally stable. 1971

Walnut insects and diseases.
Contains 17 papers summarizing up to 5 years of recent study on insect and disease problems of black walnut and butternut given at a workshop sponsored by the USDA Forest Service`s North Central Forest Experiment Station and held in Carbondale, Illinois, June 13 and 14, 1978. 1979

Planting methods and treatment for black walnut seedlings.
Neither planting method nor stock treatment had any appreciable effect on survival and growth of black walnut, but survival and growth were significantly affected by the planting site and site preparation. 1974

In Pursuit of a Better Seed Trap
Seed and litter traps are tools used by foresters and ecologists. We describe two different types of a durable trap constructed from plastic plumbing pipe, which are easily assembled/disassembled for efficient transportation and storage. 1998

Leguminous ground covers could reduce herbicide use in forestry.
Presents herbaceous legumes as an alternative to herbicides in forestry. Discusses benefits associated with the capability of legumes to control weeds and promote the growth of young trees. 1994

Butternut--Strategies for managing a threatened tree.
Briefly describes the disease of butternut caused by Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum and provides suggestions for conserving resistant butternut, including guidelines for natural and artificial regeneration. 1994

Estimating stump volume
Equations are presented that predict diameter inside and outside bark for tree boles below 4.5 feet given d.b.h. These equations are modified and integrated to estimate stump volume. Parameters are presented for 22 Lake States species groups. 1982

Specific gravity, moisture content, and density relationship for wood
This report reviews the basis for determining values for the density of wood as it depends on moisture content and specific gravity. The data are presented in several ways to meet the needs of a variety of users.

Kiln Size Affects Energy Required to Dry Lumber
Energy requirements for lumber drying kilns can depend on kiln size and range from 18,000 Btu/lb water evaporated for a 10 board food capacity kiln to 1,600 Btu/lb water evaporated for a 100,000 board foot capacity kiln. 1980

Primary production and carbon allocation in relation to nutrient supply in a tropical experimental forest

Planting red oak under oak/yellow-poplar shelterwoods: a provisional prescription.
Presents a prescription for planting northern red oak on sites dominated by yellow-poplar using the shelterwood method. 2000

Hardwood siding performance
A 6-year exposure test of three styles of siding made from nine hardwoods and given three treatments showed that full-length yellow-poplar vertical tongue-and-groove siding dip-treated in a water-repellent preservative performed best. 1967

Hardwood log quality in relation to site quality.
New site index curves for black oak are used to illustrate how contrasting tree height and diameter-growth patterns for good and poor sites are related to log quality. 1974

Predicting lumber grade yields for standing hardwood trees.
Presents a method of estimating lumber yields for hardwood trees. The grading system was developed using sugar maple but could apply to similar species. 1971

Knife Planing Across the Grain Can be Applied to Hardwoods
Shows that knife planing across the grain can be applied to most domestic hardwood species to produce a satisfactory finish knife-planed surface and flakes for particleboard. 1975

Field identification of birdseye in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.)
Gives procedures for the field identification of birdseye in standing sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) trees. 1994

Planting Yellow-Poplar, White Ash, Black Cherry, and Black Locust

Effects of Stock Removal Rates on Belt Loading for Abrasive Planing Hardwoods
Belt loading increases up to a point and then decreases as stock removal rate increases for red oak and yellow-poplar 1978

Wood brick tile for paneling
Describes styles of hardwood-brick tile paneling; recommends production and installation methods, based on a 5-year test of 1,200 square feet of wood tile on various wall materials. 1967

Using D.B.H. and Butt Log Quality to Estimate Tree Yields by Saw Log Grade
Presents a shortcut method of predicting sugar maple tree yields by saw log grade from d.b.h. and butt log grade. 1968

Determining fixed and operating costs of logging equipment.
Describes and analyzes all elements of equipment cost and gives a procedure for estimating them. 1980

Genetic implications for forest trees of increasing levels of greenhouse gases and UV-B radiation

Reducing Borer Damage in Oak Regeneration and Sawtimber

Estimating Black Walnut Plantation Growth and Yield

Silvicultural Systems for Oak-Hickory and Oak-Pine

Knock on wood : real recycling opportunities are opening up
The development of grade standards for recycled timber and lumber will aid in reclaiming the value of wood. 1999

Silvicultural Systems for Bottomland Hardwoods

Management Methods and Silvicultural Systems: What Are They?

Relative Tolerance of Hardwood and Associated Conifer Seedlings

Stocking Level, Stand Structure, Cutting Cycle, and Growth Rates

More Than Pulpwood?
Several weeks ago, a gentlemen called asking for information about aspen (`popple` to some!) regeneration. He was concerned about an area that had been harvested and was not coming back as well as expected. 2001

Using Silviculture to Minimize Gypsy Moth Impact

Effects of winter temperatures on gypsy moth egg masses in the Great Lakes region of the United States.

Estimating Bottomland Hardwood Growth and Yield

Choosing a Silvicultural System

Visual Management of Central Hardwoods

Thinning Even-aged Upland Oak Stands

Growth and Yield for Managed and Unmanaged Stands

Seeding and Planting Hardwoods

Estimating Yellow-Poplar Growth and Yield

Introduction to Forest Growth and Yield

Persistent Insect, Disease, and Climatic Problems

Estimating Oak Growth and Yield

Seeding and Planting Pines

Lumber Value and Rate of Return for Sugar Maple

Prescribed Burning for the Birches and Hemlock

Principles of Managing Stands

Seeding and Planting Walnut

Releasing Walnut in Natural Stands

Pruning Central Hardwoods

Seeding and Planting Upland Oaks

Variability in early height growth rate of forest trees: implications for retrospective studies of stand dynamics

Estimating Pine Growth and Yield

Clearcutting as a Silvicultural System

Recognizing and Preventing Maple Decline

Walnut Caterpillars and Other Defoliators

Planting Bottomland Hardwoods

Variations in Seasonal Moisture Content

The Importance of Site Quality

Thinning Sprout Clumps

Forest Access Roads

Tree Injuries From Mechanized Logging

Planting Northern Red Oak in the Ozark Highlands: A Shelterwood Prescription

Forest Insect Defoliators

Fertilizing Natural Stands

Applying the Shelterwood System

Appraising Fire Effects

Oak Decline

Sapstreak Disease of Sugar Maple

Preventing Animal Damage

Individual Tree Control

Grading Hardwood Trees

Twig and Stem Borers

Wounding and Hardwood Diseases

The Asian Longhorned Beetle: National and International Research Efforts

HARVEST: linking timber harvesting strategies to landscape patterns

What are Northern Hardwoods

Root Rots

Sycamore Diseases

Logging Damage

Direct Seeding

Elm Diseases

Diameter Limit Cutting

Trunk Decays

Gypsy Moth

Corrective Pruning

Epicormic Sprouting

Oak Wilt

Planting Seedlings

Second Thinning

Lateral Pruning

Hardwood Planting

Dutch Elm Disease

Selling Black Walnut

First Thinning

Canker Disease


Stand Weights

Weed Control


Pine Shoot Beetle Research Update

An oak wilt primer

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